As was vividly remembered from the First World War and the terror seen during the Blitzkrieg (air and land attack) the speed it swept across mainland Europe the use of aerial bombing was a major step forward in warfare, it meant the targeting of both military and civilian targets from the air was more than possible to win a war.
Bombing of airfields and military targets were to disrupt the enemy’s ability to mount a defense or go on the attack, whilst the targeting of the civilian population was developed to demoralize the population.
The early air raids would see lone aircraft flying over a target area dropping a few small bombs by hand.
With the evidence that such targeting proved a way to both bring difficulties to the military to operate and cause panic amount the civilian populations the development of more accurate bombsites and dedicated bombers carrying ever bigger heavier loads was rapidly progressed.
To counter the threat of the bombers anti-aircraft guns, search lights and night fighters were developed.
In 1924 the United Kingdom Government set up the Air Raid Precautions (ARP) to advise people on what to do and how to best prepare before any air raids.
A quantity of ARP information booklets and leaflets were printed this included information on the building of Anderson shelters in gardens, the public shelters and what you should take into the shelter with you.
People were also asked to volunteer as Air Raid Wardens, who would patrol the streets during blackouts making sure no visible light could be seen, they would order "Put that light out!" or "Cover that window!". They would also go out during air raids looking for any incendiary bombs and douse them with sand wherever possible.
They would also help the Police in areas that had suffered bomb damage as well as basic firefighting and First Aid.
By the end of the war 1.4million people had offered their services
The Southend Timeline Collection.
The Southend Timeline currently holds a collection of 111 different publications issued during the Second World War, these consist of publications from one single side on one single page up to six pages printed on both sides!
The collection held by the Southend Timeline were all issued by the Southend ARP, each had it's own circulation number, sadly number 1 is not in the collection, there were over 700 issued in Southend over the time of the Second Word War.
Whilst I would love to include the whole collection in this article the sheer amount of work to undertake such a task would take a lot of time, there is also the problem of storage space on the server.
A spreadsheet listing the entire collection held by the Southend Timeline is reproduced below, a selection of these is presented, along with advisory leaflets also held.
I will always be looking out for any that could fill the gaps!
Undated: General Information.
27th November 1942: Air Raid Precautions certificate
The list below is all the Air Raid Precautions Publications (ARPP) currently in the Southend Timeline Collection, the database is set out as:
STARPNO: The cataloguing number for the Southend Timeline Collection (Southend Timeline Air Raid Precautions Number)
Date: The date of the ARPP.
Circ No: The Circulation Number issued at the time.
Subject: The main information on the ARPP.
Pages: The number of pages the ARPP has.
Sides: How many sides of paper used.
PLEASE NOTE: That some of the publications are not dated whilst others do not have a circulation number.
|1||19th August 1940||335||Part Time Volunteers||2||3|
|2||24th August 1940||358||Alterations||2||3|
|3||29th August 1940||360||Cloud Gas Attack From The Sea||1||1|
|5||12th September 1940||367||War Damage to Property||1||1|
|6||20th September 1940||368||Heating Posts & Air Raids||1||1|
|7||25th September 1940||372||Unexploded Parachute Mines||1||1|
|8||1st October 1940||Anderson Shelters||1||1|
|9||2nd October 1940||Memo 25||Summary 14th - 26th September 1940||6||12|
|10||3rd October 1940||376||Precautions Against Electric Shock||1||1|
|11||11th October 1940||379||Parachute Mines||1||1|
|12||17th October 1940||382||General Notices||1||2|
|13||23rd October 1940||385||Confidential Notices||1||1|
|14||28th October 1940||387||Unexploded Bombs||1||1|
|15||29th October 1940||390||New Type of Small H.E. Bomb||1||1|
|16||29th October 1940||392||New Type of Miniature H.E. Bomb||1||2|
|17||6th November 1940||396||Medical Treatment for Civil Defence Volunteers||1||1|
|18||6th November 1940||397||Sounding of Handbells||1||1|
|19||Treatment of Persons Contaminated with Blister Gas||1||1|
|20||10th November 1940||Notice "Thorpe Ward"||1||1|
|21||18th November 1940||408||Tailcaps on Parachute Mines||1||1|
|22||19th November 1940||409||Part Time Volunteer Wardens||1||1|
|23||21st November 1940||413||Inflammable Spirit on Highesy||1||1|
|24||22nd November 1940||A.R.P. Casualty Services||1||1|
|25||10th December 1940||416||Air raid Wardens Service||1||2|
|26||24th December 1940||420||Objects Dropped from Enemy Aircraft||1||1|
|27||26th December 1940||421||Funeral Grants||1||1|
|28||3rd January 1941||423||The Fire Bomb Menace||1||2|
|29||20th January 1941||428||Blowing of Wardens Whistles||2||3|
|30||19th February 1941||437||Incendiary Bomb Control - Arsenical Smokes||1||1|
|31||25th February 1941||438||Notice||1||1|
|32||18th March 1941||444||Air raid Incidents||1||1|
|33||3rd April 1941||451||Fallen Cables||1||1|
|34||30th April 1941||455||Regulation 298||1||1|
|35||2nd May 1941||456||Unexploded Parachute Mines||1||1|
|36||31st July 1941||479||Objects Dropped from the Air||1||1|
|37||8th August 1941||482||Incendiary "Leaves"||1||1|
|38||18th August 1941||479||Anti Gas Precautions||3||5|
|39||11th September 1941||491||Nomenclature of Services||1||2|
|40||11th September 1941||493||Reporting of Air Raid Damage||1||2|
|41||28th October 1941||Respirator Drill||1||2|
|42||17th December 1941||518||Camouflets||1||2|
|43||10th January 1942||525||Post Manning Rotas||1||2|
|44||16th January 1942||529||Sales of Wardens Posts||1||1|
|45||26th January 1942||531||Confidential Notices||1||1|
|46||26th February 1942||535||Anti Gas Precautions||1||1|
|47||12th March 1942||537||Incendiary Bomb Control||1||2|
|48||23rd April 1942||Lighting of Bollards||1||1|
|49||1st June 1942||Objects Dropped from the Air||1||1|
|50||2nd June 1942||Instructions||1||1|
|51||20th June 1942||556||Unignited Incendiary Bombs||1||1|
|52||9th July 1942||561||Enrolment in the Home Guard||1||2|
|53||21st July 1942||562||Objects Dropped from the Air||1||2|
|54||21st July 1942||563||Reports of Gas Incidents||1||2|
|55||4th August 1942||565||New Incendiary Weapons||1||2|
|56||7th August 1942||General Notices||1||1|
|57||18th August 1942||569||German Bomb B2.2 E1-Z||1||2|
|58||27th August 1942||571||Conservation of Rubber||1||2|
|59||4th September 1942||575||Uniform||1||2|
|60||22nd October 1942||581||Small Anti-Personnel Bomb||1||1|
|61||581||Addendum to 581, 22nd October 1942||1||1|
|62||28th October 1942||591||A New Anti-Personnel Bomb||1||1|
|63||2nd December 1942||592||Reporting of Air Raid Damage||1||1|
|64||12th December 1942||First Air Posts||1||1|
|65||Leaflet||Treatment of Phosphorus Burns at Air Raid Incidents||1||1|
|66||22nd December 1942||595||Civil Defence Wardens Service & The Fire Guard||1||2|
|67||24th December 1942||596||Treatment of Phosphorus Burns at Air Raid Incidents||1||2|
|68||12th March 1943||614||Small Anti-Personnel Bomb||2||3|
|69||9th March 1943||Phonetic Alphabet||1||1|
|70||6th April 1943||617||Phosphorus Bombs||1||2|
|71||7th April 1943||618||Civil Defence & The Home Guard||1||2|
|72||5th July 1943||634||General Notices||1||1|
|73||19th July 1943||Wearing of Uniform by Whole Time and Part Time Members||1||1|
|74||4th August 1943||646||Air Raid Incidents||1||1|
|75||13th August 1943||651||General Notices||1||1|
|76||26th August 1943||656||General Notices||1||1|
|77||1st September 1943||657||Civil Defence (General) Services Reporting||1||2|
|78||2nd September 1943||658||Wardens Service||1||2|
|80||Eastern Division Notice||2||1|
|81||8th September 1943||Instructions for Senior Wardens||1||1|
|82||8th September 1943||Cuties for Part Time Wardens||1||2|
|83||Influence of Weather and other Conditions||2||1|
|84||15th September 1943||663||Wardens Post||1||2|
|85||20th September 1943||663||Addendum to 658 2nd September 1943||1||1|
|87||Labelling of Casualties and the Dead||1||1|
|88||8th October 1943||669||Civil Defence (General) Services Payment of Subsistence||2||3|
|89||18th October 1943||670||General Notices||1||2|
|90||Disposal of Unignited Incendiary Bombs||2||2|
|91||Routine Duties for Whole Time Wardens||1||1|
|92||Ten Points of Pre-Eminence of Mustard Gas||1||1|
|93||22nd November 1943||675||Civil Defence Uniforms||1||2|
|94||24th November 1943||670||General Notices||1||2|
|95||Specimen Log Book Headings||1||1|
|96||9th December 1943||677||Civil Defence (General) Services Reporting||1||2|
|97||9th December 1943||678||Civil Defence (General) Services Reporting||1||2|
|98||14th December 1943||683||Reporting||1||1|
|99||16th December 1943||686||General Notices||1||2|
|100||21st January 1944||690||German Jet Propelled Radio-Controlled HE Glider Bombs||1||1|
|101||22nd January 1944||692||Objects Dropped from the Sky||1||1|
|102||2nd February 1944||694||I B S E N||1||2|
|103||11th February 1944||696||50kg Phosphorous Oil Bombs||1||1|
|104||17th February 1944||700||Reporting of Air raid Incidents||1||1|
|105||704||Payment of Subsidtence and Cycle Allowances||1||1|
|106||7th March 1944||705||Children's Resporators||1||1|
|107||9th March 1944||707||Wardens Service||1||1|
|108||9th March 1944||708||Wardens Duties||1||1|
|109||11th March 1944||709||Injury Due to War Gases||1||1|
|110||11th March 1944||710||Morrison Shelters||1||1|
|111||30th March 1944||712||Secret Enemy Weapons||1||1|
Total in Collection: 111 Pages: 136 Sides: 172
Total in Collection:
Whilst it would be nice to have all the ARP Publications held by the Southend Timeline scanned and uploaded to this website the amount of storage space on the server is limited as is bandwidth, a few are shown below, they have been photographed and are reproduced below to give a little bit of insight into what they dealt with.
20th August 1940 General Notices: This is was a two page three side publication, dealing Gas protection, gas masks,
20th June 1942 Unignited Incendiary Bombs.
11th March 1944 Morrison Shelters